EFSA Journal – 2021 – – Scientific opinion on the import of Musa fruits as a pathway for the entry of non‐EU Tephritidae


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health examined
evidence as to whether the import of fruits of Musa (bananas and plantains) could provide a pathway
into the EU for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other non-EU Tephritidae for
which Musa is a host. Relevant scientific and technical information, including unpublished information
provided to the EFSA Panel on Plant Health by the European Commission from research conducted in
Cabo Verde, were taken into account. The majority of EU imports of Musa fruit comes from Ecuador,
Colombia and Costa Rica where B. dorsalis does not occur. Commercial Musa fruits are harvested at
‘green stage one’ before they begin to ripen naturally. Postharvest processes are designed to ensure
that only high quality, unripe fruit are exported. Green stage one fruit are transported to the EU in
controlled conditions and stimulated to ripen when exposed to exogenous ethylene in ripening rooms
in the EU. There is no evidence that any Tephritidae can naturally infest commercial varieties of Musa
fruit at green stage one or earlier. When experimentally infested with eggs of Tephritidae, larvae fail to
develop in green stage one fruit. Physical and chemical changes that occur during fruit ripening enable
B. dorsalis and 11 other species of Tephritidae to oviposit and develop in Musa at later stages of fruit
development. Reports of B. dorsalis or other Tephritidae infesting bunches of Musa fruit are a
consequence of the fruit being left to develop beyond green stage one in the field. There is no
evidence that commercially grown fruits of Musa, for export to the EU, provide a pathway for the entry
of non-EU Tephritidae. Passengers bringing Musa fruit from countries where Tephritidae can infest
ripened Musa fruit do however provide a potential pathway for the entry of non-EU Tephritidae into
the EU territory.
© 2021 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf
of European Food Safety Authority.

Additional information







Publication Date

January 28, 2021

Focus Areas

Musa fruits




There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “EFSA Journal – 2021 – – Scientific opinion on the import of Musa fruits as a pathway for the entry of non‐EU Tephritidae”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *